The Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation: Relevance to African states

The Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCoC), which came into effect on 25 November 2002, aims to strengthen efforts to curb ballistic missile proliferation worldwide, thereby supplementing the Missile Technology Control Regime, which restricts access to technologies needed to develop such systems. Ballistic missiles are the favoured delivery vehicles for weapons of mass destruction and therefore have a destabilising effect on regional and global security. This brief provides an overview of the HCoC, examines its relevance for African states and outlines the benefits that can be derived by subscribing to its general principles, commitments and confidence-building measures.


About the authors

Nicolas Kasprzyk is a consultant for the ISS, South Africa, where he is project leader on the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and their means of delivery to non-state actors. Previously, he worked at the UN as a 1540 Committee expert, at the French Ministry of Defence’s Directorate for Strategic Affairs, and at the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company.

Emmanuelle Maitre is a research fellow at the Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique in Paris, where she focuses on nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and deterrence. Previously, Emmanuelle worked as a research assistant at the Brookings Center on the United States and Europe. She has a master’s degree in public affairs from the Sciences Po in Paris.

Xavier Pasco is a senior research fellow at the Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique in Paris. He specialises in international space policy and security-related issues, and has led numerous studies on space policy in the field of civilian and military activities. Pasco is also an associate fellow at the Space Policy Institute (George Washington University) and is European editor of Space Policy.

Noël Stott is a senior research fellow at the ISS, South Africa, specialising in Africa’s development and the threat of WMD, with a particular focus on the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and other related conventions. He has extensive experience in many aspects of arms control, including issues relating to conventional arms.

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