Smuggling has historically been a solution for Maghrebi states, ensuring stability in often marginalised areas. This has changed in recent years, with increasingly securitised policies being put in place. These policies have had a significantly negative impact on borderland communities, leading to heightened unemployment, crime and migration.
About the authors
Dr Matt Herbert is the Research Manager for the North Africa and Sahel Observatory at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, and a Senior Research Consultant at the Institute for Security Studies.
Dr Max Gallien is a Research Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies and a Senior Fellow at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.
Image: Adapted from Magharebia